GaBi Solutions




The AWARE (Available Water Remaining) and WSI (Water Scarcity Index) are water assements.


The WSI and AWaRe quantities are based on the water consumption, i.e. the calculation logic inputs – degradative outputs. The flows are multiplied with the country specific characterization factors.

For WSI, the resulting unit is water deprivation (in m³) or “RED” water (Relevant environmental depletion, see PFISTER 2009). For AWaRe, the resulting unit is “User Deprivation Potential” (UDP) in m³ world-equivalents.

The WSI and AWaRe quantities exist in three different versions, with a high, OECD+BRIC average, and low characterization factor for unspecified water. In these quantities, all characterization factors are the same, except those for the unspecified (non-regionalized) flows. The unspecified (non-regionalized) flows are still used in many data sets. For those flows, different characterization factors are used in the different quantities. In the version “high”, the unspecified flows are characterized with a high scarcity factor - choosing this quantity assumes “unspecified water” is consumed in water stressed regions, such as the Middle East or Spain. The “OECD+BRIC average” version refers to the average water scarcity in the OECD + BRIC countries. This value was preferred over the global average (all countries) as the OECD + BRIC represent the majority of worldwide economic activity. The “low” version represents less water stressed countries, such as in North-Western Europe.

For further details, see the document ‘thinkstep introduction to Water Assessment in GaBi’ or the webinars on water modelling – all available here:

Normalisation and weighting

Normalization and weighting is not carried out.


AWARE method: Available Water Remaning 

WSI method: PFISTER ET AL. 2009 Pfister, S.; Koehler, A.; Hellweg, S.: Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Freshwater Consumption in LCA. Environmental Science & Technology 43, 2009.



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