GaBi Solutions




In the software and database system GaBi, the ILCD elementary flows for land use are integrated and characterization factors (CF) for the LANCA® (Land Use Indicator Value Calculation in Life Cycle Assessment) indicators are provided.


The following set of indicators has been defined to model land use aspects in LCA:

  • Erosion Resistance
  • Mechanical Filtration
  • Physicochemical Filtration
  • Groundwater Replenishment
  • Biotic Production

On the inventory side country specific land use flows are used for “occupation” with the unit m²*a and for “transformation from” and “transformation to” with the unit m² for all different land use types as for example “arable, irrigated, intensive” or “forest”. The respective country specific characterization factors are integrated into the GaBi database and software in the impact assessment, and aggregated over the process chain to form environmental indicators that are representative for the entire life cycle. In the GaBi background processes land use information is addressed for all biomass and mining process. Through aggregation land use information is integrated in most of the processes. Therefore, land use can be considered as an additional aspect in LCA to extend its environmental impact evaluation.

Normalisation and weighting

Normalization and weighting is not carried out.



Horn, R., Maier, S. (2018): Updated Characterization Factors (Version 2.5).


Bos, U.; Horn, R.; Beck, T.; Lindner, J. P.; Fischer, M.: LANCA® Characterization Factors for Life Cycle Impact Assessment, Version 2.0; 2016


Beck, T.; Bos, U.; Wittstock, B., et al.: LANCA® – Calculation of Land Use Indicator Values in Life Cycle Assessment; 2010

Bos, U.: Operationalisierung und Charakterisierung der Flächeninanspruchnahme im Rahmen der Ökobilanz. Forschungsergebnisse aus der Bauphysik, Band 32. Dissertation. Fraunhofer Verlag, ISBN 978-3-8396-1432-7. Stuttgart, 2019.




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